An Emerging Human Parechovirus Type 5 Causing Sepsis-Like Illness in Infants in Australia

Authors: Anthony Chamings 1,2 , Kwee Chin Liew 3,4, Emily Reid 3, Eugene Athan 1,2,3, Amy Raditsis 2,3, Peter Vuillermin 2,3, Yano Yoga 5, Leon Caly 5, Julian Druce 5 and Soren Alexandersen 1,2,3,*

1.  Geelong Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases, Geelong, VI 3220, Australia
2 . Deakin University, School of Medicine, Geelong, VI 3220, Australia
3.  Barwon Health, University Hospital Geelong, Geelong, VI 3220, Australia
4.  Australian Clinical Labs, Geelong Laboratory, Geelong, VI 3220, Australia
5.  Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL), Doherty Institute,
Melbourne, VI 3000, Australia
* Correspondence: soren.alexandersen@deakin.edu.au; Tel.: +61-(0)-342159635
Received: 20 September 2019; Accepted: 1 October 2019; Published: 3 October 2019

Abstract: Human parechovirus (HPeV), particularly type 3 (HPeV3), is an important cause of sepsis-/meningitis-like illness in young infants. Laboratory records identified a total of ten HPeV-positive cases in Southeastern Australia between January and July 2019.

The HPeV present in these cases were typed by Sanger sequencing of the partial viral capsid protein 1 (VP1) region and selected cases were further characterised by additional Sanger or Ion Torrent near-full length virus sequencing.

In seven of the ten cases, an HPeV type 5 (HPeV5) was identified, and in the remaining
three cases, an HPeV type 1 was identified. The HPeV5-positive cases were infants under the age of 3 months admitted to hospital with fever, rash, lethargy and/or sepsis-like clinical signs. Near full-length virus sequencing revealed that the HPeV5 was most likely a recombinant virus, with structural genes most similar to an HPeV5 from Belarus in 2018, and a polymerase gene most similar to an HPeV3 from Australia in 2013/14.

While HPeV5 is not typically associated with severe clinical signs, the HPeV5 identified here may have been able to cause more severe disease in young infants through the acquisition of genes from a more virulent HPeV.

Keywords: parechovirus; picornaviral epidemiology; recombination; genome sequencing

SOURCE Viruses 201911(10), 913;

web link: https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100913

 

 

 

Evolutionary analysis of human parechovirus type 3 and clinical outcomes of infection during the 2017-18 Australian epidemic

AuthorsAnthony Chamings, Julian  Druce, Leon Caly, Yano Yoga, Philip N. Britton, Kristine K. Macartney & Soren Alexandersen

Source: Scientific Reports 9, Article number: 8906 (2019)

Abstract: Human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) can cause severe sepsis-like illness in young infants and may be associated with long term neurodevelopmental delay later in childhood.

We investigated the molecular epidemiology of HPeV infection in thirty three infants requiring hospitalization before, during and after the peak of the 2017/18 HPeV epidemic wave in Australia.

During the peak of the epidemic, all cases were infected with an HPeV3, while before and after the peak, HPeV1 was the predominant type detected. The predominant HPeV3 was the recombinant HPeV3 also detected in the 2013/14 and 2015/16 Australian epidemics. Sepsis-like or meningitis-like symptoms were only reported in cases infected with the recombinant HPeV3. Phylogenetic analysis of the recombinant HPeV3 revealed that the virus continued to evolve, also between the Australian outbreaks, thus indicating continued circulation, despite not being detected and reported in Australia or elsewhere in between epidemic waves. The recombinant HPeV3 continued to show a remarkable stability in its capsid amino acid sequence, further strengthening our previous argument for development of a vaccine or immunotherapeutics to reduce the severity of HPeV3 outbreaks due to this virus.

 

Detection and characterisation of canine astrovirus, canine parvovirus and canine papillomavirus in puppies using next generation sequencing

Authors: Tarka Raj BhattaAnthony ChamingsJessy Vibin & Soren Alexandersen

Source: Scientific Reports 9, Article number: 4602 (2019)

Brief summary of the paper: Gastroenteritis in young animals is a clinical presentation with many infectious and non- infectious aetiologies. We used next generation sequencing (NGS) to investigate the possible infectious causes of gastroenteritis in puppies from a dog kennel in Victoria, Australia.

The near complete genome of a canine astrovirus was obtained from pooled faecal samples, and was found to be 94.7% identical with a canine astrovirus detected in the United Kingdom in 2012. The phylogenetic analysis of the capsid gene found similarities to those of canine astroviruses identified in Italy in 2005 and in UK and Hungary in 2012, but distant from that of a canine astrovirus previously identified in Australia in 2012.

Thus, different serotypes of canine astrovirus are likely circulating in Australia. The close relationship to European astroviruses also suggested that there had been recent movements of ancestor canine astroviruses between Australia and Europe.

NGS also detected other infections in the puppies including several canine papillomaviruses and a canine parvovirus (vaccine strain) as well as a very low level of campylobacter. Canine astrovirus was the probable cause of diarrhoea in these puppies, with the possible involvement of campylobacter bacteria. NGS was effective as a non-targeted method to determine the likely infectious cause of gastroenteritis.

APPRISE Q & A with Dr Chamings

The APPRISE Centre of Research Excellence is developing research to inform Australia’s emergency response to infectious diseases.  APPRISE is an Australia-wide network of experts in medical, scientific, public health and ethics research from many different institutions, including GCEID.  In their latest new article they held a question and answer session with GCEID researcher Dr Anthony Chamings.

The article can be read here

 

World “One Health” Day 2018

Join GCEID and the partner organisations in celebrating World One Health day.  “One Health” is a multidisciplinary approach to managing infectious diseases in people, animals and the environment. This event will showcase how researchers in Geelong are undertaking collaborative research to protect people, animals and the environment from infectious diseases.
When: Thursday 15 November 2018 between 10am and 3pm
This is an open house event, please feel free to drop in at any point throughout the day

Where: St Mary’s Building, 190 Myers Street, Geelong, 3220

All welcome at this free event.

  • Morning session: Research Talks (10-11:45am)
  • Lunch Session: Meet the researchers (noon-1:15pm)
  • Afternoon session: Showcasing the work of AAHL and Barwon Health in infectious disease control (1:30-3pm)

Please click here for Program details

Please feel free to drop in to one, two or all three sessions!  To ensure adequate catering you can register at eventbrite

 

Metagenomics detection and characterisation of viruses in faecal samples from Australian wild birds

Authors: Jessy Vibin, Anthony Chamings, Fiona Collier, Marcel Klaassen, Tiffanie M. Nelson & Soren Alexandersen

SourceScientific Reportsvolume 8, Article number: 8686 (2018)

Brief summary of the paper: We present an optimised metagenomics method for detection and characterisation of all virus types including single and double stranded DNA/RNA and enveloped and non-enveloped viruses.

Initial evaluation included both spiked and non-spiked bird faecal samples as well as non-spiked human faecal samples. From the non-spiked bird samples (Australian Muscovy duck and Pacific black ducks) we detected 21 viruses, and we also present a summary of a few viruses detected in human faecal samples.

We then present a detailed analysis of selected virus sequences in the avian samples that were somewhat similar to known viruses, and had good quality (Q20 or higher) and quantity of next-generation sequencing reads, and was of interest from a virological point of view, for example, avian coronavirus and avian paramyxovirus 6. Some of these viruses were closely related to known viruses while others were more distantly related with 70% or less identity to currently known/sequenced viruses.

Besides detecting viruses, the technique also allowed the characterisation of host mitochondrial DNA present and thus identifying host species, while ribosomal RNA sequences provided insight into the “ribosomal activity microbiome”; of gut parasites; and of food eaten such as plants or insects, which we correlated to non-avian host associated viruses.

Is Australia as protected from potentially serious host-jumping virus outbreaks as previously thought?

A GCEID team has discovered coronaviruses in Australia’s wild birds, showing the nation is not as isolated from potentially serious host-jumping virus outbreaks as previously thought. The researchers, led by the Geelong Centre for Emerging Infectious Diseases (GCEID), has discovered that two different types of coronaviruses are present in Australian wild birds. The discovery marks an important step in building scientists’ understanding of this family of viruses, which have a history of being able to jump into new host species and cause disease.

Read more on this @ Deakin Invenio: Virus discovery in Australian wild birds

The study is the first to demonstrate the presence of coronaviruses in Australian wild birds, and was published in “Nature: Scientific Reports”. See below for more details:

Authors: Anthony Chamings, Tiffanie M. Nelson, Jessy Vibin, Michelle Wille, Marcel Klaassen & Soren Alexandersen

Source: Scientific Reports, Volume 8, Article number: 5980 (2018)

Brief summary of the paper: We evaluated the presence of coronaviruses by PCR in 918 Australian wild bird samples collected during 2016–17. Coronaviruses were detected in 141 samples (15.3%) from species of ducks, shorebirds and herons and from multiple sampling locations.

Sequencing of selected positive samples found mainly gammacoronaviruses, but also some deltacoronaviruses. The detection rate of coronaviruses was improved by using multiple PCR assays, as no single assay could detect all coronavirus positive samples. Sequencing of the relatively conserved Orf1 PCR amplicons found that Australian duck gammacoronaviruses were similar to duck gammacoronaviruses around the world.

Some sequenced shorebird gammacoronaviruses belonged to Charadriiformes lineages, but others were more closely related to duck gammacoronaviruses. Australian duck and heron deltacoronaviruses belonged to lineages with other duck and heron deltacoronaviruses, but were almost 20% different in nucleotide sequence to other deltacoronavirus sequences available. Deltacoronavirus sequences from shorebirds formed a lineage with a deltacoronavirus from a ruddy turnstone detected in the United States.

Given that Australian duck gammacoronaviruses are highly similar to those found in other regions, and Australian ducks rarely come into contact with migratory Palearctic duck species, we hypothesise that migratory shorebirds are the important vector for moving wild bird coronaviruses into and out of Australia.