Authors: Anthony Chamings, Julian Druce, Leon Caly, Yano Yoga, Philip N. Britton, Kristine K. Macartney & Soren Alexandersen
Source: Scientific Reports 9, Article number: 8906 (2019)
Abstract: Human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV3) can cause severe sepsis-like illness in young infants and may be associated with long term neurodevelopmental delay later in childhood.
We investigated the molecular epidemiology of HPeV infection in thirty three infants requiring hospitalization before, during and after the peak of the 2017/18 HPeV epidemic wave in Australia.
During the peak of the epidemic, all cases were infected with an HPeV3, while before and after the peak, HPeV1 was the predominant type detected. The predominant HPeV3 was the recombinant HPeV3 also detected in the 2013/14 and 2015/16 Australian epidemics. Sepsis-like or meningitis-like symptoms were only reported in cases infected with the recombinant HPeV3. Phylogenetic analysis of the recombinant HPeV3 revealed that the virus continued to evolve, also between the Australian outbreaks, thus indicating continued circulation, despite not being detected and reported in Australia or elsewhere in between epidemic waves. The recombinant HPeV3 continued to show a remarkable stability in its capsid amino acid sequence, further strengthening our previous argument for development of a vaccine or immunotherapeutics to reduce the severity of HPeV3 outbreaks due to this virus.
Authors: Tarka Raj Bhatta, Anthony Chamings, Jessy Vibin & Soren Alexandersen
Source: Scientific Reports 9, Article number: 4602 (2019)
Brief summary of the paper: Gastroenteritis in young animals is a clinical presentation with many infectious and non- infectious aetiologies. We used next generation sequencing (NGS) to investigate the possible infectious causes of gastroenteritis in puppies from a dog kennel in Victoria, Australia.
The near complete genome of a canine astrovirus was obtained from pooled faecal samples, and was found to be 94.7% identical with a canine astrovirus detected in the United Kingdom in 2012. The phylogenetic analysis of the capsid gene found similarities to those of canine astroviruses identified in Italy in 2005 and in UK and Hungary in 2012, but distant from that of a canine astrovirus previously identified in Australia in 2012.
Thus, different serotypes of canine astrovirus are likely circulating in Australia. The close relationship to European astroviruses also suggested that there had been recent movements of ancestor canine astroviruses between Australia and Europe.
NGS also detected other infections in the puppies including several canine papillomaviruses and a canine parvovirus (vaccine strain) as well as a very low level of campylobacter. Canine astrovirus was the probable cause of diarrhoea in these puppies, with the possible involvement of campylobacter bacteria. NGS was effective as a non-targeted method to determine the likely infectious cause of gastroenteritis.
The APPRISE Centre of Research Excellence is developing research to inform Australia’s emergency response to infectious diseases. APPRISE is an Australia-wide network of experts in medical, scientific, public health and ethics research from many different institutions, including GCEID. In their latest new article they held a question and answer session with GCEID researcher Dr Anthony Chamings.
The article can be read here
Thanks to all the speakers, organisers and everyone who came to our World One Health Day for an enjoyable event. Below are some pictures from the day.
See you all next year!